A Dichotomous Key to Species of Erythroneura

1. Pygofer dorsal appendage 3 pointed (ventral branch bifurcate).

2

1'. Pygofer dorsal appendage 2 pointed (C-shaped).

4

2(1). Aedeagus ventral processes distally bifurcate.

3

2'. Aedeagus ventral processes not bifurcate, strongly sinuate in lateral view.

E. kanwakae Robinson

3(2). Lateral branch of aedeagus ventral process longer than medial branch. Anteclypeus pale. Larger (3.3-3.7 mm).

E. fiduciaria Knull

3'. Lateral branch of aedeagus ventral process shorter than medial branch. Anteclypeus dark. Smaller (2.7-3 mm).

E. prima Beamer

4(1). Aedeagus with ventral processes.

5

4'. Aedeagus without ventral processes.

52

5(4). Aedeagus ventral processes as long as shaft or longer.

6

5'. Aedeagus ventral processes shorter than shaft.

46

6(5). Aedeagus ventral processes bifurcated or with preapical projection.

7

6'. Aedeagus ventral processes simple.

11

7(6). Aedeagus ventral process with short preapical projection.

8

7'. Aedeagus ventral process with two long branches subequal in length.

10

8(7). Third point of style apex shorter than distance between other two points. Forewing with narrow red crossband.

E. diva McAtee

8'. Third point of style apex longer than distance between other two points. Forewing without crossband.

9

9(8). Apex of aedeagus extended well beyond bases of distal processes, with distinct spicules.

E. browni Dmitriev & Dietrich

9'. Apex of aedeagus not extended beyond bases of distal processes, without spicules.

E. comes Say

10(7). Aedeagus ventral processes bifurcate close to base. Clavus with black spot.

E. octonotata Walsh

10'. Aedeagus ventral processes bifurcate more distad from base. Clavus without black spot. Forewing with broad red crossband.

E. amanda McAtee

11(6). Third point of style apex elongate, about as long or longer than distance between other two points.

12

11'. Third point of style apex shorter than distance between other two points.

21

12(11). Aedeagus ventral processes nearly parallel to each other.

13

12'. Aedeagus ventral processes strongly divergent apically.

15

13(12). Aedeagus ventral processes strongly sinuate in lateral view.

E. nudata McAtee

13'. Aedeagus ventral processes straight or only slightly sinuate in lateral view.

14

14(13). Apex of aedeagus extended well beyond bases of distal processes, compressed, with distinct apical spicules. Aedeagus ventral processes strongly divergent in ventral view. Anteclypeus pale.

E. ortha Dmitriev & Dietrich

14'. Apex of aedeagus extended little beyond bases of distal processes, rounded in crossection, without spicules. Aedeagus ventral processes parallel in ventral view. Anteclypeus dark.

E. festiva Beamer

15(12). Apex of aedeagus extended well beyond bases of distal processes.

16

15'. Apex of aedeagus extended little if any beyond bases of distal processes.

18

16(15). Shaft of aedeagus denticulate distally.

E. browni Dmitriev & Dietrich

16'. Shaft of aedeagus smooth.

17

17(16). Aedeagus ventral processes curved dorsad distally in lateral view. Vertex with orange pattern.

E. gilensis Beamer

17'. Aedeagus ventral processes curved ventrad distally in lateral view. Vertex usually black.

E. pontifex McAtee

18(15). Aedeagus distal processes only slightly divergent distally in ventral view; dorsal carina not reaching apex.

E. palimpsesta McAtee

18'. Aedeagus distal processes strongly divergent distally in ventral view; dorsal carina reaching apex.

19

19(18). Aedeagus ventral processes abruptly bent laterad 90 distally in ventral view, sinuate distally in lateral view; shaft without distal vestiture.

E. beameri Robinson

19'. Aedeagus ventral processes evenly curved distally in ventral view, straight or curved ventrad in lateral view; shaft with distal vestiture.

20

20(19). Aedeagus ventral processes strongly compressed basally. Forewing with oblique vittae forming continuous zigzag pattern.

E. reflecta McAtee

20'. Aedeagus ventral processes only slightly compressed. Forewing with broken oblique vittae.

E. comes Say

21(11). Forewing with narrow crossband (rarely incomplete) near midlength, apex dark, base pale. Mesonotum dark (at least lateral triangles).

22

21'. Color pattern not as above.

26

22(21). Ventral branch of pygofer dorsal appendage much longer than dorsal branch.

E. integra McAtee

22'. Branches of pygofer dorsal appendage of subequal length.

23

23(22). Aedeagus with strong dorsal keel, apex extended well beyond bases of distal processes.

E. carinata Dmitriev & Dietrich

23'. Aedeagus without dorsal keel, apex extended little if any beyond bases of distal processes.

24

24(23). Aedeagus ventral processes strongly sinuate in lateral view, with apices curved dorsad.

E. tricincta Fitch

24'. Aedeagus ventral processes straight or with apices curved ventrad.

25

25(24). Aedeagus distal processes more slender, their apices more distal in lateral view.

E. cymbium McAtee

25'. Aedeagus distal processes broader, their apices more basal in lateral view.

E. calycula McAtee

26(21). Third point of style apex subequal to or longer than half distance between other two points.

27

26'. Third point of style apex shorter than half distance between other two points.

34

27(26). Aedeagus distal processes slender.

28

27'. Aedeagus distal processes broad.

30

28(27). Aedeagus ventral processes evenly divergent.

E. vagabunda Knull

28'. Aedeagus ventral processes parallel to each other on ventral side of aedeagus.

29

29(28). Shaft of aedeagus straight in lateral view, with dorsal distal lobe.

E. aza Robinson

29'. Shaft of aedeagus curved dorsad, without dorsal distal lobe.

E. glabra Dmitriev & Dietrich

30(27). Aedeagus ventral processes parallel or slightly divergent in ventral view. Pronotum usually pale with Y-shaped orange vita medially.

31

30'. Aedeagus ventral processes strongly divergent apically in ventral view. Pronotum mostly dark brown.

32

31(30). Apex of aedeagus extended beyond bases of distal processes. Mesonotum with black basal triangles.

E. elegantula Osborn

31'. Apex of aedeagus not extended beyond bases of distal processes. Mesonotum without black basal triangles.

E. acuticephala Robinson

32(30). Aedeagus distal processes each with two sharp points, falcate distally in ventral view. Lateral margins of pronotum pale contrasting with dark brown medial area.

E. aclys McAtee

32'. Aedeagus distal processes each with one sharp point, diamond-shaped in ventral view. Lateral margins of pronotum usually dark, concolorous with medial area.

33

33(32). Scutellum pale. Forewing often with crossbands.

E. bistrata McAtee

33'. Scutellum dark. Forewings without crossbands.

E. prosata Johnson

34(26). Dorsum almost completely black.

E. infuscata Gillette

34'. Ground color of dorsum various, but not black.

35

35(34). Aedeagus ventral processes strongly divergent apically.

36

35'. Aedeagus ventral processes not or only slightly divergent apically.

38

36(35). Dorsal branch of pygofer dorsal appendage about half length of ventral branch. Aedeagus distal processes rounded in ventral view. Forewings with pale diamond-shaped transcommisural marking outlined with dark brown.

E. cancellata McAtee

36'. Branches of pygofer dorsal appendage subequal in length. Aedeagus distal processes pointed in ventral view. Forewings with broken oblique vitae.

37

37(36). Aedeagus ventral processes narrowing distally in lateral view. Mesonotum with black lateral triangles.

E. triapitsyni Dmitriev & Dietrich

37'. Aedeagus ventral processes of even width in lateral view. Mesonotum without black triangles.

E. bakeri Dmitriev & Dietrich

38(35). Aedeagus apex extended beyond bases of distal processes.

39

38'. Aedeagus apex not extended beyond bases of aedeagus distal processes.

44

39(38). Aedeagus compressed, with strong dorsal keel.

40

39'. Aedeagus rounded in crossection, dorsal carina if present, feebly developed.

42

40(39). Aedeagus ventral processes strongly sinuate in lateral view.

E. anfracta Beamer

40'. Aedeagus ventral processes straight in lateral view.

41

41(40). Shaft of aedeagus in ventral view extended more than twice its width beyond bases of distal processes. Forewings with continuous zigzag pattern.

E. ziczac Walsh

41'. Shaft of aedeagus in ventral view not extended more than twice its width beyond bases of distal processes. Forewings with crossbands interrupted with red longitudinal veins.

E. elegans McAtee

42(39). Aedeagus with distal processes slender; apex of shaft beyond distal processes slightly broadened.

E. delicata McAtee

42'. Aedeagus with distal processes flattened; apex of shaft beyond distal processes not broadened.

43

43(42). Second point of style apex longer than third. Aedeagus ventral processes convergent distally.

E. vitifex Fitch

43'. Second point of style apex shorter than third. Aedeagus ventral processes divergent distally.

E. rubra Gillette

44(38). Second point of style apex longer than third. Forewing mostly dark with two pale narrow crossbands, sometimes interrupted with red longitudinal veins.

E. vitis Harris

44'. Second point of style apex as short or shorter than third. Forewing without crossbands.

45

45(44). Aedeagus distal processes broadened distally in ventral view. Mesonotum with black lateral triangles. Forewing with broken oblique vittae.

E. coloradensis Gillette

45'. Aedeagus distal processes diamond-shaped in ventral view. Mesonotum with red lateral triangles. Forewing with continuous zigzag pattern.

E. fraxa Robinson

46(5). Aedeagus with dorsal processes placed on phallobase or between phallobase and shaft of aedeagus.

47

46'. Aedeagus without dorsal processes.

49

47(46). Aedeagus with unpaired small dorsal process on phallobase.

E. vaga Johnson

47'. Aedeagus with pair of long dorsal processes between aedeagal shaft and phallobase.

48

48(47). Third point of style apex longer than distance between other two points. Aedeagus distal processes shorter.

E. kerzhneri Dmitriev & Dietrich

48'. Third point of style apex shorter than distance between other two points. Aedeagus distal processes longer.

E. kennedyi Knull

49(46). Aedeagus ventral processes placed close to shaft. Dorsal branch of pygofer dorsal appendage subequal to ventral branch.

E. ancora Beamer

49'. Aedeagus ventral processes well separated from shaft. Dorsal branch of pygofer dorsal appendage much shorter than ventral branch.

50

50(49). Aedeagus ventral processes divergent.

E. tacita Beamer

50'. Aedeagus ventral processes parallel to each other.

51

51(50). Branches of pygofer dorsal appendages convergent distally in lateral view, ventral branch distally slightly curved upward. Aedeagus in ventral view broadened preapically.

E. caetra McAtee

51'. Branches of pygofer dorsal appendages strongly divergent in lateral view. Aedeagus in ventral view not broadened preapically.

E. rosa Robinson

52(4). Aedeagus with pair of large distal processes and pair of smaller preapical processes. Pygofer dorsal appendages short.

E. omaska Robinson

52'. Aedeagus without distal and preapical processes. Pygofer dorsal appendages long.

53

53(52). Aedeagus broad in ventral view, with strong dorsal keel.

E. rubrella McAtee

53'. Aedeagus slender in ventral view, without dorsal keel, with dorsal distal lobe.

54

54(53). Dorsal branch of pygofer dorsal appendage subequal to ventral branch.

E. corni Robinson

54'. Dorsal branch of pygofer dorsal appendage much shorter than ventral branch.

55

55(54). Ventral branch of pygofer dorsal process expanded and twisted subapically. Larger (2.8-3.2 mm).

E. bidens McAtee

55'. Ventral branch of pygofer dorsal process not expanded or twisted subapically. Smaller (2.5-2.8 mm).

E. ontari Robinson