A Dichotomous Key to Species of Eratoneura

1. Aedeagus with pair of slender distal processes.

2

1'. Aedeagus without slender distal processes.

8

2(1). Aedeagus with pair of processes arising at base or near midlength of shaft.

3

2'. Aedeagus without processes arising at base or near midlength of shaft.

4

3(2). Aedeagal shaft curved dorsad, processes arising near midlength of shaft. Dorsal pygofer appendage extended to pygofer apex.

E. gillettei Beamer

3'. Aedeagal shaft curved ventrad, processes arising at base of shaft. Dorsal pygofer appendage not extended to pygofer apex.

E. imbricariae Ross & DeLong

4(2). Tip of aedeagal shaft with short dorsal projection; distal processes extended ventrolaterad.

5

4'. Tip of aedeagal shaft without dorsal projection; distal processes extended dorsolaterad.

6

5(4). Distal processes of aedeagus about as long as shaft.

E. lamucata Ross & DeLong

5'. Distal processes of aedeagus about half as long as shaft.

E. maculata Gillette

6(4). Third point of style apex longer than half distance between other two points. Distal processes of aedeagus arising subapically, shorter then half length of shaft.

E. eversi Ross & DeLong

6'. Third point of style apex shorter than half distance between other two points. Distal processes of aedeagus arising apically, almost as long as shaft.

7

7(6). Third point of style apex short toothlike, subequal in size to second point. Aedeagal shaft with prominent lateral lobes, smooth. Pygofer appendage compressed.

E. noncuspidis Beamer

7'. Third point of style apex almost as long as half distance between other two points. Aedeagal shaft without lateral lobes, with teeth. Pygofer appendage not compressed.

E. teshi Hepner

8(1). Aedeagus with pair of processes arising at base of shaft.

9

8'. Aedeagus without processes arising at base of shaft.

15

9(8). Pygofer appendage not extended to pygofer apex, bulbous subapically. Forewing basal half uniformly red.

E. osborni DeLong

9'. Pygofer appendage extended to or beyond pygofer apex, not bulbous subapically. Forewing basal half yellow with reddish maculae.

10

10(9). Third point of style apex longer than distance between other two points. Pygofer appendage curved upward, widest at midlength. Basal processes of aedeagus small toothlike.

E. sandersoni Ross

10'. Third point of style apex shorter than distance between other two points. Pygofer appendage straight or curved downward, widest at base. Basal processes of aedeagus longer.

11

11(10). Pygofer appendage with ring of long spines near midlength. Aedeagal shaft strongly compressed, with dorsal carina or distal lobe; basal processes appressed to shaft.

12

11'. Pygofer appendage without ring of long spines. Aedeagal shaft without dorsal carina or distal lobe; basal processes divergent from shaft.

13

12(11). Aedeagal shaft broad in lateral view, only about twice as long as wide; basal processes extended along dorsal margin of shaft.

E. crinita Beamer

12'. Aedeagal shaft slender in lateral view, more than 5 time as long as wide; basal processes extended along ventral margin of shaft.

E. andersoni Beamer

13(11). Third point of style apex longer than half distance between other two points. Aedeagal shaft broad. Larger (3.5-3.7 mm). Forewing with two large reddish patches.

E. paraesculi Knull

13'. Third point of style apex shorter than half distance between other two points. Aedeagal shaft slender. Smaller (2.8-3.1 mm). Forewing with usual maculate pattern.

14

14(13). Preatrium much shorter than aedeagal shaft; basal processes almost as long as shaft.

E. tammina Ross & DeLong

14'. Preatrium about as long as aedeagal shaft; basal processes shorter than half length of shaft.

E. texana Beamer

15(8). Pygofer appendage (not including small basal projection) bifurcate or expanded at apex.

16

15'. Pygofer appendage not bifurcate or expanded at apex (sometimes expanded near midlength).

52

16(15). Pygofer appendage bifurcate near base.

17

16'. Pygofer appendage bifurcate far from base or expanded near apex.

22

17(16). Third point of style apex longer than half distance between other two points. Aedeagal shaft curved dorsad, tip abruptly bent dorsad.

E. separata Beamer

17'. Third point of style apex short toothlike or absent. Aedeagal shaft straight, tip not bent dorsad.

18

18(17). Ventral branch of pygofer appendage abruptly curved upward in distal third.

E. curvata Beamer

18'. Ventral branch of pygofer appendage straight or smoothly curved.

19

19(18). Branches of pygofer appendage converging distally, subequal in width or dorsal branch wider.

E. restricta Beamer

19'. Branches of pygofer appendage not converging distally, ventral branch wider than dorsal.

20

20(19). Pygofer appendage extended ventrocaudad, not reaching pygofer apex. Aedeagal shaft broad in lateral view, gradually narrowing towards apex, without lateral lobes at base.

E. impar Beamer

20'. Pygofer appendage extended caudad along dorsal margin of pygofer, reaching pygofer apex. Aedeagal shaft in lateral view more slender, parallel sided, with lateral lobes at base.

21

21(20). Ventral branch of pygofer appendage evenly tapering towards apex.

E. carmini Beamer

21'. Ventral branch of dorsal fork of pygofer appendage parallel sided through its length, abruptly narrowing at apex.

E. forfex Beamer

22(16). Third point of style apex about as long as or longer than distance between other two points.

23

22'. Third point of style apex about as long as or shorter than half distance between other two points.

36

23(22). Apex of pygofer appendage with numerous spines.

24

23'. Apex of pygofer appendage bifurcate, without spines.

25

24(23). Aedeagal shaft more than twice as long as wide in lateral view, with lateral lobes not broader than shaft in ventral view. Third point of style apex evenly curved.

E. linea Beamer

24'. Aedeagal shaft less than twice as long as wide in lateral view, with lateral lobes broader than shaft in ventral view. Third point of style apex sinuate.

E. rangifer Ross & DeLong

25(23). Tip of aedeagal shaft expanded in ventral view, abruptly bent dorsad in lateral view.

E. dimidiata Knull

25'. Tip of aedeagal shaft not expanded in ventral view, not bent dorsad in lateral view.

26

26(25). Aedeagal shaft round in crossection through length.

E. sanctaerosae Hepner

26'. Aedeagal shaft compressed.

27

27(26). Aedeagal shaft about as long as wide in ventral view.

28

27'. Aedeagal shaft about 1.5 times as long as wide in ventral view.

30

28(27). Aedeagal shaft triangular in ventral view. Branches of pygofer appendage crossed in dorsal view.

E. betulae Dmitriev & Dietrich

28'. Aedeagal shaft round in ventral view. Branches of pygofer appendage not crossed in dorsal view.

29

29(28). Aedeagus with ventral hump. Pygofer appendage directed caudad. Larger (2.9-3.2 mm).

E. concisa Beamer

29'. Aedeagus without ventral hump. Pygofer appendage curved dorsad. Smaller (2.4-2.6 mm).

E. spala Ross & DeLong

30(27). Dorsal branch of pygofer appendage less than half length of ventral branch, sharply curved outward at right angle.

E. harpola Ross

30'. Dorsal branch of pygofer appendage, if shorter than ventral branch, not curved outward.

31

31(30). Aedeagal shaft narrowing towards apex in ventral view.

32

31'. Aedeagal shaft parallel sided in ventral view.

34

32(31). Aedeagal shaft straight in lateral view. Branches of pygofer appendage divergent at obtuse angle. Forewing with color pattern consisting of small reddish maculae.

E. minor Beamer

32'. Aedeagal shaft curved ventrad in lateral view. Branches of pygofer appendage divergent at acute angle. Forewing with large reddish patches.

33

33(32). Larger (2.9-3.1 mm). Forewing with single large spot at base.

E. aesculi Beamer

33'. Smaller (2.7-2.9 mm). Forewing with two smaller spots: one at base, another at apex of clavus.

E. bifida Beamer

34(31). Branches of pygofer appendage divergent at acute angle. Smaller (2.5-2.7 mm). Coloration usual for genus with small reddish maculae.

E. aculeata Beamer

34'. Branches of pygofer appendage divergent at about 90 angle. Larger (2.7-3.2 mm). Forewings with enlarged reddish patches.

35

35(34). Ventral branch of pygofer appendage longer than dorsal branch. Smaller (2.7-2.9 mm).

E. lusoria Van Duzee

35'. Ventral branch of pygofer appendage shorter than dorsal branch. Larger (2.9-3.2 mm).

E. pyra McAtee

36(22). Branches of pygofer appendage at least half as long as appendage, parallel to each other.

E. millsi Ross & DeLong

36'. Branches of pygofer appendage much shorter than half length of appendage, divergent, or appendage not bifurcated but expanded at apex.

37

37(36). Preatrium of aedeagus as long as or shorther than half length of aedeagal shaft. Branches of pygofer appendage long.

E. longifurca Hepner

37'. Preatrium of aedeagus about as long as aedeagal shaft.

38

38(37). Aedeagal shaft curved dorsad at right angle near base.

E. manus Beamer

38'. Aedeagal shaft straight in lateral view or only slightly curved.

39

39(38). Second point of style apex prominent. Apex of pygofer appendage abruptly curved downward, then recurved, denticulate.

E. staffordi Hepner

39'. Second point of style apex short toothlike. Apex of pygofer appendage not as above.

40

40(39). Lateral lobes of aedeagal shaft large, reaching apex of shaft. Mesonotum brownish.

E. ardens McAtee

40'. Lateral lobes of aedeagal shaft, if present, not reaching apex of shaft. Mesonotum not brownish.

41

41(40). Pygofer appendage broad in lateral view, denticulate along dorsal margin.

42

41'. Pygofer appendage, if broad in lateral view, not denticulate along dorsal margin.

43

42(41). Smaller (2.6-2.9 mm). Forewing with zigzag pattern.

E. uvaldeana Knull

42'. Larger (3.1-3.3 mm). Forewing with maculate pattern.

E. inepta Beamer

43(41). Pygofer appendage bifurcate at apex.

44

43'. Pygofer appendage expanded at apex, with multiple distal spines.

50

44(43). Pygofer appendage expanded and compressed in distal half before bifurcation.

45

44'. Pygofer appendage not expanded in distal half, round in crossection.

46

45(44). Pygofer appendage expanded and compressed only in distal half, thickened along dorsal margin, branches of fork divergent at acute angle. Aedeagal shaft with narrow lateral lobes at base, slender in lateral view.

E. firma Beamer

45'. Pygofer appendage expanded and compressed throughout its length, not thickened along dorsal margin, branches of fork divergent at obtuse angle. Aedeagal shaft with large lateral lobes, broad in lateral view.

E. bispinosa Beamer

46(44). Ventral branch of pygofer appendage much longer and thicker than dorsal branch.

E. hyalina Knull & Auten

46'. Ventral branch of pygofer appendage not longer or thicker than dorsal branch.

47

47(46). Pygofer appendage sinuate twice before bifurcation, ventral branch very short, toothlike.

E. harnedi Hepner

47'. Pygofer appendage sinuate only once before bifurcation, ventral branch at least twice as long as broad.

48

48(47). Branches of pygofer appendage extended more or less horizontally, one branch about twice as long as other.

E. unica Beamer

48'. Branches of pygofer appendage extended one above other, of about equal length.

49

49(48). Branches of pygofer appendage of equal length, or ventral branch slightly longer, angle between branches about 90.

E. mira Beamer

49'. Ventral branch of pygofer appendage slightly shorter than dorsal branch, angle between branches acute.

E. facota Beamer

50(43). Pygofer appendage depressed. Smaller (2.6-2.8 mm).

E. cristata Knull

50'. Pygofer appendage not depressed. Larger (2.8-3 mm).

51

51(50). Pygofer appendage with blunt apex. Aedeagus with large lateral lobes at base.

E. mcateei Dmitriev & Dietrich

51'. Pygofer appendage with pointed apex. Aedeagus without lateral lobes.

E. ungulata Beamer

52(15). Aedeagus with basal processes arising near midlength of shaft.

E. distincta Knull & Auten

52'. Aedeagus without basal processes, with or without lateral lobes at base of shaft.

53

53(52). Pygofer appendage widest at middle.

54

53'. Pygofer appendage widest at base.

70

54(53). Third point of style apex as long as or longer than distance between other two points.

55

54'. Third point of style apex distinctly shorter than distance between other two points.

61

55(54). Aedeagal shaft strongly compressed, apex acuminate in ventral view.

56

55'. Aedeagal shaft round or depressed in crossection, apex truncate in ventral view.

57

56(55). Pygofer appendage arising at middle of dorsal margin of pygofer lobe, its apex straight or slightly curved inward in dorsal view.

E. spinea Knull

56'. Pygofer appendage arising in basal third of dorsal margin of pygofer lobe, its apex curved outward in dorsal view.

E. rotunda Beamer

57(55). Aedeagal shaft round in crossection, without lateral lobes at base. Apex of pygofer appendage curved outward in dorsal view.

E. nigriventer Beamer

57'. Aedeagal shaft depressed, with lateral lobes at base. Apex of pygofer appendage not curved outward in dorsal view.

58

58(57). Aedeagal shaft short and broad in lateral view, only about 2 times as long as wide. Pygofer appendage curved upward in lateral view.

E. stupkaorum Knull

58'. Aedeagal shaft slender in lateral view, about 4 times as long as wide. Pygofer appendage not curved upward in lateral view.

59

59(58). Aedeagal shaft curved dorsad in lateral view. Pygofer appendage straight in dorsal view.

E. usitata Beamer

59'. Aedeagal shaft straight in lateral view. Pygofer appendage distinctly sinuate in dorsal view.

60

60(59). Pygofer appendage sinuate twice, extended well beyond pygofer apex. Third point of style apex about as long as distance between other two points. Smaller (2.6-2.8 mm).

E. incondita Beamer

60'. Pygofer appendage sinuate once, only slightly extended beyond pygofer apex. Third point of style apex considerably longer than distance between other two points. Larger (3-3.2 mm).

E. ingrata Beamer

61(54). Third point of style apex longer than half distance between other two points. Aedeagal shaft with large lateral lobes at base; tip of shaft abruptly bent dorsad. Smaller (2.4-2.8 mm).

62

61'. Third point of style apex shorter than half distance between other two points. Aedeagal shaft with or without narrow lateral lobes at base; tip of shaft not bent dorsad. Larger (2.8-3.3 mm).

63

62(61). Aedeagal shaft with dorsal carina; shaft narrowing towards apex in lateral view; lateral lobes narrowing towards shaft apex, widest at base.

E. arenosa Ross & DeLong

62'. Aedeagal shaft without dorsal carina; shaft parallel sided in lateral view; lateral lobes rounded, widest at middle.

E. uncinata Beamer

63(61). Forewing with 3 narrow red crossbands.

E. arpegia Ross

63'. Forewing with usual maculate color pattern.

64

64(63). Aedeagal shaft broad in lateral view, distinctly compressed; gonoduct well separated from dorsal margin of shaft at least distally.

65

64'. Aedeagal shaft slender in lateral view; gonoduct close to dorsal margin of shaft throughout its length.

66

65(64). Aedeagal shaft with straight dorsal and ventral margins; gonoduct distant from dorsal margin throughout length of shaft.

E. propria Beamer

65'. Aedeagal shaft with slightly bent dorsal and ventral margins; gonoduct distant from dorsal margin only in distal half of shaft.

E. brevipes Beamer

66(64). Aedeagal shaft distinctly curved dorsad; dorsal apodeme rounded distally in dorsal view.

E. turgida Beamer

66'. Aedeagal shaft straight in lateral view or slightly curved ventrad; dorsal apodeme truncate distally in dorsal view.

67

67(66). Pygofer appendage swollen in distal half.

E. delongi Knull & Auten

67'. Pygofer appendage swollen in distal two thirds.

68

68(67). Pygofer appendage not denticulate, more than twice as wide at middle as at base; its dorsal margin straight.

E. immota Beamer

68'. Pygofer appendage denticulate distally, less than twice as wide at middle as at base; its dorsal margin sinuate.

69

69(68). Pygofer appendage extended beyond pygofer apex, directed caudad.

E. tantilla Beamer

69'. Pygofer appendage not extended beyond pygofer apex, directed ventrocaudad.

E. sorota Hepner

70(53). Pygofer appendage not extended to pygofer apex.

71

70'. Pygofer appendage extended to or beyond pygofer apex.

91

71(70). Third point of style apex longer than half distance between other two points.

72

71'. Third point of style apex not longer than half distance between other two points.

81

72(71). Third point of style apex with broad base, triangular in shape.

73

72'. Third point of style apex narrow throughout its length.

74

73(72). Dorsal apodeme of aedeagus extended posterad to midlength of aedeagal shaft in lateral view.

E. solita Beamer

73'. Dorsal apodeme of aedeagus not extended beyond base of aedeagal shaft in lateral view.

E. knullae Ross

74(72). Aedeagal shaft broad in lateral view and strongly compressed, more than twice as broad in lateral view as in ventral view. Smaller (2.5-2.7 mm).

E. omani Beamer

74'. Aedeagal shaft slender in lateral view, at most slightly compressed, less than twice as broad in lateral view as in ventral view. Larger (2.7-3.2 mm).

75

75(74). Lateral lobes of aedeagal shaft widest near midlength of shaft.

76

75'. Lateral lobes of aedeagal shaft, if present, widest at base of shaft.

77

76(75). Aedeagal shaft straight in lateral view, forming right angle with preatrium. Third point of style apex curved.

E. mimica Ross

76'. Aedeagal shaft curved dorsad, forming continuous curve with preatrium. Third point of style apex straight.

E. sancta Beamer

77(75). Third point of style apex shorter than distance between other two points.

E. inksana Knull

77'. Third point of style apex longer than distance between other two points.

78

78(77). Pygofer appendage attenuate, about 10 times as long as wide in lateral view, extended towards ventrocaudal margin of pygofer lobe.

E. alloplana Ross

78'. Pygofer appendage robust, about 5 times as long as wide in lateral view, extended towards caudal margin of pygofer lobe.

79

79(78). Aedeagal shaft curved dorsad. Pygofer appendage curved upward and inward in distal half.

E. parva Beamer

79'. Aedeagal shaft straight in lateral view. Pygofer appendage straight in distal half.

80

80(79). Angle between basal and third points of style apex about 45, margin between first and second points convex, first point prominent.

E. mirifica Beamer

80'. Angle between basal and third points of style apex almost 90, margin between first and second points concave, first point small.

E. abjecta Beamer

81(71). Tip of aedeagus depressed, abruptly bent dorsad; aedeagal shaft not denticulate. Forewing largely red.

E. hartii Gillette

81'. Tip of aedeagus not as above. Forewing with usual maculate pattern.

82

82(81). Aedeagal shaft short and broad in lateral view (less than twice as long as wide); preatrium longer than shaft.

83

82'. Aedeagal shaft longer and more slender (more than twice as long as wide); preatrium as long as or shorter than shaft.

84

83(82). Aedeagal shaft depressed. Pygofer appendage curved downward. Smaller (2.5-2.6 mm). Mesonotum apex reddish.

E. misera Beamer

83'. Aedeagal shaft compressed. Pygofer appendage straight in lateral view. Larger (2.6-2.8 mm). Mesonotum apex blackish.

E. nevadensis Beamer

84(82). Aedeagal shaft expanded towards apex in ventral view.

E. lata Beamer

84'. Aedeagal shaft not expanded towards apex in ventral view.

85

85(84). Aedeagal shaft curved dorsad.

86

85'. Aedeagal shaft straight in lateral view or slightly curved ventrad.

88

86(85). Third point of style apex short, toothlike. Aedeagal shaft broad in lateral view, with large lateral lobes extended to gonopore.

E. levecki Hepner

86'. Third point of style apex at least 3 times as long as wide. Aedeagal shaft slender in lateral view, with small lateral lobes not extended to gonopore.

87

87(86). Angle between basal and third points of style more than 90. Aedeagal shaft not denticulate, lateral lobes widest at middle of shaft.

E. tantula Knull

87'. Angle between basal and third points of style about 90. Aedeagal shaft denticulate, lateral lobes widest at base of shaft.

E. beeri Hepner

88(85). Third point of style apex evenly curved, about half as long as distance between other two points. Pygofer appendage only 1.5 times as long as basal projection.

E. accita Knull

88'. Third point of style apex straight, less than half as long as distance between other two points. Pygofer appendage at least twice as long as basal projection.

89

89(88). Pygofer appendage evenly curved downward and outward, not compressed.

E. cera Hepner

89'. Pygofer appendage straight or slightly sinuate in lateral view, straight in dorsal view, compressed.

90

90(89). Tip of aedeagal shaft curved ventrad; lateral lobes extended beyond midlength of shaft. Forewing usually with narrow reddish crossband at middle of clavus.

E. rubraza Robinson

90'. Aedeagal shaft more or less straight; lateral lobes not extended to midlength of shaft. Forewing without reddish crossband, basal half sometimes darkened.

E. affinis Fitch

91(70). Third point of style apex very short, toothlike, about as long as wide, or shorter.

92

91'. Third point of style apex at least twice as long as wide at base.

118

92(91). Aedeagal shaft distinctly curved dorsad.

93

92'. Aedeagal shaft straight or slightly curved ventrad.

95

93(92). Aedeagal shaft round in crossection, slender in lateral view, with small lateral lobes. Coloration whitish with reduced maculate color pattern.

E. stephensoni Beamer

93'. Aedeagal shaft compressed, broad in lateral view, without lateral lobes. Coloration yellowish with usual maculate color pattern.

94

94(93). Pygofer appendage curved downward in lateral view, straight in dorsal view. Larger (3.1-3.3 mm).

E. clavipes Beamer

94'. Pygofer appendage curved upward in lateral view, distinctly sinuate in dorsal view. Smaller (2.6-2.8 mm).

E. retusa Beamer

95(92). Pygofer appendage strongly curved inward, apex crossing midline.

96

95'. Pygofer appendage at most slightly curved inward, apex not crossing midline.

97

96(95). Portion of pygofer appendage distad of bend about twice as long as basal portion, tip sinuate.

E. hymac Robinson

96'. Portion of pygofer appendage distad of bend about as long as basal portion, tip straight.

E. externa Beamer

97(95). Aedeagus with large denticulate lateral lobes at base, close to dorsal margin of aedeagus.

E. brooki Hepner

97'. Aedeagus without denticulate lateral lobes.

98

98(97). Pygofer appendage extended well beyond pygofer apex (usually > 5 times appendage width).

99

98'. Pygofer appendage only slightly, if any, extended beyond pygofer apex.

109

99(98). Pygofer appendage straight in dorsal and lateral view.

E. longa Knull

99'. Pygofer appendage sinuate in dorsal and/or lateral view.

100

100(99). Pygofer appendage helical, curved in three dimensions.

E. sebringensis Hepner

100'. Pygofer appendage not helical, sinuate in one plane.

101

101(100). Third point of style apex not developed.

102

101'. Third point of style apex prominent.

103

102(101). Pygofer appendage straight in dorsal view.

E. parvipes Beamer

102'. Pygofer appendage strongly sinuate in dorsal view.

E. calamitosa Beamer

103(101). Pygofer appendage curved downward or straight in lateral view, only slightly sinuate in dorsal view.

104

103'. Pygofer appendage in distal half curved upward in lateral view, usually strongly sinuate in dorsal view.

105

104(103). Pygofer appendage abruptly bent twice (near base and near tip) in dorsal view. Aedeagal shaft compressed.

E. richardsi Ross

104'. Pygofer appendage evenly curved in dorsal view. Aedeagal shaft round in crossection.

E. marilandicae Ross

105(103). Pygofer lobe with rounded apex. Vertex midline usually red.

E. opulenta Beamer

105'. Pygofer dorsal lobe with angulate apex. Vertex midline usually yellowish.

106

106(105). Aedeagus narrow in dorsal view, with small lateral lobes at base. Forewing usually with red crossband.

E. era McAtee

106'. Aedeagus more broad in dorsal view, without lateral lobes, or with lobes extended along entire length of shaft. Forewing without crossband.

107

107(106). Aedeagal shaft with lateral lobes along entire length of shaft; preatrium longer than shaft.

E. fergersoni Hepner

107'. Aedeagal shaft without lateral lobes; preatrium about as long as shaft.

108

108(107). Aedeagal shaft slightly compressed distally; gonoduct divergent from dorsal margin in distal half of shaft. Smaller (2.7-2.9 mm).

E. ellisi Hepner

108'. Aedeagal shaft round in crossection; gonoduct parallel to dorsal margin of shaft. Larger (2.9-3.2 mm).

E. acantha Ross & DeLong

109(98). Pygofer appendage distinctly curved downward at angle of about 45 or more from horizontal.

110

109'. Pygofer appendage straight in lateral view, or only slightly curved downward.

113

110(109). Pygofer lobe with rounded apex; appendage curved downward at angle of about 90.

E. interna Beamer

110'. Pygofer lobe with angulate apex; appendage curved downward at angle of about 45.

111

111(110). Pygofer appendage slightly extended beyond pygofer apex. Aedeagal shaft slender, without lateral lobes. Larger (2.9-3.1 mm).

112

111'. Pygofer appendage not extended beyond pygofer apex. Aedeagal shaft broader, with lateral lobes at base. Smaller (2.6-2.7 mm).

E. robusta Knull

112(111). Pygofer appendage abruptly curved downward at middle of its length. Aedeagal shaft shorter than preatrium.

E. metopia Ross

112'. Pygofer appendage evenly curved downward throughout its length. Aedeagal shaft about as long as preatrium.

E. patris Ross & DeLong

113(109). Pygofer appendage depressed in basal half, twisted at middle, and compressed distally, straight in dorsal and lateral view.

E. econa Ross

113'. Pygofer appendage, if straight, not twisted.

114

114(113). Pygofer appendage slightly curved downward in lateral view. Forewing with three narrow red crossbands.

E. alicia Ross

114'. Pygofer appendage straight or slightly curved upward in lateral view. Forewing with usual maculate color pattern.

115

115(114). Pygofer appendage straight. Forewing with oblique vittae forming continuous zigzag pattern.

E. zioni Beamer

115'. Pygofer appendage distinctly sinuate. Forewing with broken oblique vittae.

116

116(115). Aedeagal shaft round in crossection. Smaller (2.6-2.7 mm).

E. greeni Hepner

116'. Aedeagal shaft compressed. Larger (2.8-3.1 mm).

117

117(116). Aedeagal shaft with large lateral lobes at base, slightly curved dorsad.

E. lenta Beamer

117'. Aedeagal shaft without lateral lobes, straight in lateral view.

E. gilesi Hepner

118(91). Third point of style apex about as long as or longer than distance between other two points.

119

118'. Third point of style apex shorter than distance between other two points.

162

119(118). Aedeagal shaft distinctly compressed.

120

119'. Aedeagal shaft round in crossection or depressed.

125

120(119). Aedeagal shaft slender in lateral view (more than 3 times as long as wide). Pygofer appendage extended to pygofer apex.

121

120'. Aedeagal shaft broad in lateral view (less than 3 times as long as wide). Pygofer appendage extended beyond pygofer apex.

122

121(120). Third point of style apex about as long as distance between other two points, broad at base; angle between basal and third points of style about 90.

E. maga Knull

121'. Third point of style apex much longer than distance between other two points, narrow throughout its length; angle between basal and third points of style less than 90.

E. igella Ross & DeLong

122(120). Aedeagal shaft without lateral lobes, apex truncate in ventral view. Margin between first and second points of style apex convex.

E. stannardi Hepner

122'. Aedeagal shaft with lateral lobes, its apex acuminate in ventral view. Margin between first and second points of style apex straight or concave.

123

123(122). Apex of pygofer appendage strongly recurved in lateral view, distinctly denticulate.

E. trautmanae Knull

123'. Apex of pygofer appendage not recurved or only slightly recurved in lateral view.

124

124(123). Apex of pygofer appendage curved outward in dorsal view. Gonoduct separated from dorsal margin of aedeagal shaft by more than half shaft width.

E. rotunda Beamer

124'. Apex of pygofer appendage curved inward in dorsal view. Gonoduct separated from dorsal margin of aedeagal shaft by less than half shaft width.

E. knighti Beamer

125(119). Aedeagal shaft short and broad, not more that 1.5 times longer than wide in ventral view.

126

125'. Aedeagal shaft longer, more than 1.5 times longer than wide in ventral view.

139

126(125). Third point of style apex with broad base, triangular. Aedeagal shaft round in ventral view.

E. triangulata Beamer

126'. Third point of style apex narrow throughout its length.

127

127(126). Tip of aedeagal shaft abruptly bent dorsad at right angle and expanded. Forewing with large reddish patch.

E. corylorubra Knull

127'. Tip of aedeagal shaft not bent dorsad, usually not expanded.

128

128(127). Denticulate part of aedeagal shaft triangular in dorsal view, narrowing towards apex. Forewing usually with large red patches.

129

128'. Denticulate part of aedeagal shaft parallel sided or rounded in dorsal view. Forewing with usual maculate pattern.

130

129(128). Pygofer appendage curved downward. Forewing with single red patch.

E. fulleri Hepner

129'. Pygofer appendage curved inward. Forewing with two red patches.

E. rubranotata Beamer

130(128). Ventral margin of aedeagal shaft forming continuous line with preatrium. Pygofer appendage distinctly curved inward.

131

130'. Ventral margin of aedeagal shaft forming obtuse angle with preatrium. Pygofer appendage straight or only slightly curved in dorsal view.

132

131(130). Aedeagal shaft slender in lateral view, strongly expanded in ventral view, more than 2 times as broad as phallobase. Pygofer appendage evenly curved throughout its length.

E. citrosa Ross

131'. Aedeagal shaft broad in lateral view, only slightly expanded in ventral view, only slightly broader than phallobase. Pygofer appendages curved in distal third only.

E. clara Beamer

132(130). Pygofer appendage extended well beyond pygofer apex (at least 5 times of appendage width).

E. nimia Knull

132'. Pygofer appendage extended only slightly, if any, beyond pygofer apex.

133

133(132). Third point of style apex about as long as distance between other two points. Aedeagal shaft parallel sided in ventral view, round in crossection.

E. flexibilis Knull

133'. Third point of style apex considerably longer than distance between other two points. Aedeagal shaft swollen in ventral view, usually depressed.

134

134(133). Pygofer appendage slightly sinuate in distal third.

135

134'. Pygofer appendage not sinuate in distal third.

136

135(134). Third point of style apex more than 1.5 times as long as distance between other two points. Aedeagus without ventral hump.

E. certa Beamer

135'. Third point of style apex less than 1.5 times as long as distance between other two points. Aedeagus with ventral hump.

E. direpta Knull

136(134). Preatrium longer than aedeagal shaft. Smaller (2.4-2.7 mm).

137

136'. Preatrium about as long as aedeagal shaft. Larger (2.8-3.4 mm).

138

137(136). Pygofer appendage curved downward; pygofer lobe with angulate apex.

E. tersa Knull

137'. Pygofer appendage slightly curved inward, straight in lateral view; pygofer lobe with rounded apex.

E. dira Beamer

138(136). Pygofer appendage curved downward. Aedeagal shaft with ventral hump. Larger (3.2-3.4 mm).

E. luculenta Knull

138'. Pygofer appendage straight in lateral view, only slightly curved at tip. Aedeagal shaft without ventral hump. Smaller (2.8-3.2 mm).

E. fausta Knull

139(125). Aedeagal shaft with large usually denticulate lateral lobes reaching apex of shaft.

140

139'. Lateral lobes on aedeagal shaft, if present, not denticulate and not reaching apex of shaft.

148

140(139). Pygofer appendage compressed, apex curved downward.

141

140'. Pygofer appendage straight in lateral view.

143

141(140). Pygofer appendage sinuate in dorsal view, strongly denticulate. Clavus mostly red.

E. bella McAtee

141'. Pygofer appendage straight in dorsal view, if denticulate, only along ventral margin. Clavus with usual maculate pattern.

142

142(141). Pygofer appendage denticulate along ventral margin. Aedeagal shaft straight in lateral view. Smaller (2.5-2.8 mm).

E. coxi Ross & DeLong

142'. Pygofer appendage not denticulate. Aedeagal shaft slightly curved dorsad. Larger (2.9-3.1 mm).

E. torella Robinson

143(140). Preatrium shorter than aedeagal shaft. Angle between basal and third points of style apex about 45.

E. tumida Knull

143'. Preatrium as long or longer than aedeagal shaft. Angle between basal and third points of style apex almost 90.

144

144(143). Lateral lobes of aedeagal shaft without small teeth. Smaller (2.3 mm).

E. glicilla Ross

144'. Lateral lobes of aedeagal shaft with small teeth. Larger (2.9-3.4 mm).

145

145(144). Pygofer appendage compressed. Hind margin of mesonotum dark brown. Forewing with brown crossband at apex of clavus.

E. morgani DeLong

145'. Pygofer appendage not compressed. Hind margin of mesonotum pale.

146

146(145). Pygofer appendage sinuate basally, straight in distal half. Third point of style apex not longer than distance between other two points.

E. arta Beamer

146'. Pygofer appendage straight basally, slightly curved inward in distal half. Third point of style apex longer than distance between other two points.

147

147(146). Aedeagal shaft with lateral lobes widest at base of shaft. Mesonotum with dark brown apex. Forewing with brownish crossband.

E. hymettana Knull

147'. Aedeagal shaft with lateral lobes widest at middle of shaft. Mesonotum with reddish apex. Forewing with usual maculate pattern.

E. lawsoni Robinson

148(139). Pygofer appendage distinctly curved downward at angle of about 45 or more from horizontal.

E. continua Knull & Auten

148'. Pygofer appendage straight in lateral view, or only slightly curved downward.

149

149(148). Preatrium distinctly shorter than aedeagal shaft.

150

149'. Preatrium as long as or longer than aedeagal shaft.

155

150(149). Pygofer appendage distinctly sinuate.

E. valida Knull

150'. Pygofer appendage straight or slightly evenly curved.

151

151(150). Angle between basal and third points of style apex about 90. Dorsal apodeme of aedeagus less than half as long as shaft.

E. pamelae Hepner

151'. Angle between basal and third points of style apex less than 90. Dorsal apodeme of aedeagus more than half as long as shaft.

152

152(151). Angle between basal and third points of style apex less than 45. Aedeagal shaft strongly curved dorsad.

E. protuma Ross

152'. Angle between basal and third points of style apex more than 45. Aedeagal shaft straight or only slightly curved dorsad.

153

153(152). Aedeagal shaft round in crossection, dorsal margin sinuate naer apex in lateral view, with distinct lateral lobes.

E. havana Ross & DeLong

153'. Aedeagal shaft depressed, dorsal margin straight or evenly curved ventrad near apex in lateral view, parallel sided in dorsal view.

154

154(153). Pygofer appendage strongly extended beyond pygofer apex (at least 5 times of appendage width). Tip of aedeagal shaft curved ventrad. Larger (3-3.2 mm).

E. gemoides Ross

154'. Pygofer appendage not or only slightly extended beyond pygofer apex. Tip of aedeagal shaft straight in lateral view. Smaller (2.7-3 mm).

E. gemina McAtee

155(149). Dorsal apodeme of aedeagus not extended posterad along aedeagal shaft in lateral view.

156

155'. Dorsal apodeme of aedeagus extended posterad along aedeagal shaft in lateral view.

157

156(155). Aedeagal shaft round in crossection, straight in lateral view; dorsal apodeme expanded laterad.

E. malaca Knull

156'. Aedeagal shaft depressed, curved dorsad; dorsal apodeme not expanded laterad.

E. penesica Beamer

157(155). Aedeagal shaft depressed, without lateral lobes.

158

157'. Aedeagal shaft round in crossection or compressed, with lateral lobes at base.

159

158(157). Aedeagal shaft oval in ventral view, largely denticulate. Forewing with large reddish maculae.

E. parallela McAtee

158'. Aedeagal shaft parallel sided in ventral view, denticulate only at apex. Forewing with small reddish maculae.

E. severini Knull

159(157). Third point of style apex more than 1.5 times as long as distance between other two points. Aedeagal shaft slightly curved dorsad, with pointed apex in lateral view.

E. claroides Hepner

159'. Third point of style apex less than 1.5 times as long as distance between other two points. Aedeagal shaft straight in lateral view, with apex usually curved ventrad and truncate.

160

160(159). Pygofer appendage slightly curved upward and denticulate distally. Mesonotum with dark brown lateral triangles and apex. Forewing with fuscous crossband.

E. lunata McAtee

160'. Pygofer appendage straight or curved downward, not denticulate. Mesonotum with reddish lateral triangles and apex. Forewing with usual maculate color patter.

161

161(160). Aedeagal shaft narrowing towards apex in lateral view, slender. Third point of style apex longer than distance between other two points.

E. adunca Beamer

161'. Aedeagal shaft parallel sided in lateral view, stout. Third point of style apex not longer than distance between other two points.

E. curta Beamer

162(118). Aedeagal shaft strongly curved dorsad (> 45).

163

162'. Aedeagal shaft straight or only slightly curved in lateral view.

165

163(162). Aedeagal shaft evenly curved in distal half, with large lateral lobes, without dorsal carina.

E. ballista Beamer

163'. Aedeagal shaft curved in basal half, straight in distal half, without lateral lobes, with large dorsal carina.

164

164(163). Pygofer appendage strongly sinuate. Third point of style curved.

E. rostrata Beamer

164'. Pygofer appendage straight. Third point of style straight.

E. penerostrata Beamer

165(162). Third point of style apex not longer than 1/3 distance between other two points.

166

165'. Third point of style apex longer than 1/3 distance between other two points.

181

166(165). Pygofer appendage straight or slightly curved outward in dorsal view.

167

166'. Pygofer appendage distinctly sinuate or curved inward in dorsal view.

171

167(166). Aedeagal shaft curved dorsad.

E. emquu Ross & DeLong

167'. Aedeagal shaft straight in lateral view or curved ventrad.

168

168(167). Aedeagal shaft compressed. Forewing with 3 narrow crossbands.

E. trivittata Robinson

168'. Aedeagal shaft round in crossection. Forewing without crossbands or with single crossband not reaching lateral margin of wing.

169

169(168). Pygofer appendage strongly extended beyond pygofer apex (at least 5 times of appendage width). Preatrium about as long as aedeagal shaft; dorsal apodeme short.

E. anseri Hepner

169'. Pygofer appendage only slightly, if any, extended beyond pygofer apex. Preatrium longer than aedeagal shaft; dorsal apodeme long.

170

170(169). Apex of aedeagal shaft curved ventrad. Third point of style apex not longer than 1/4 distance between other two points. Clavus often with red spot.

E. stoveri Ross & DeLong

170'. Apex of aedeagal shaft straight in lateral view. Third point of style 1/3 or more as long as distance between other two points. Forewing with usual maculate pattern.

E. campora Robinson

171(166). Aedeagal shaft depressed, broadened distally in ventral view.

E. spinifera Beamer

171'. Aedeagal shaft not depressed, parallel sided or narrowing towards apex in ventral view.

172

172(171). Dorsal apodeme of aedeagus not extended posterad along aedeagal shaft in lateral view, strongly extended laterad, rounded distally in dorsal view; shaft with denticulate lateral lobes.

E. comoides Ross & DeLong

172'. Dorsal apodeme of aedeagus extended well posterad along aedeagal shaft in lateral view; lateral lobes of aedeagus, if present, not denticulate.

173

173(172). Second point of style apex long and slender, about as long as third. Forewing with red zigzag pattern. Aedeagal shaft distinctly curved dorsad.

E. confirmata McAtee

173'. Second point of style apex shorter than third. Forewing with crossband or usual maculate pattern.

174

174(173). Pygofer appendage strongly extended beyond pygofer apex (at least 5 times of appendage width).

175

174'. Pygofer appendage only slightly, if any, extended beyond pygofer apex.

177

175(174). Aedeagal shaft distinctly compressed, broad in lateral view, without lateral lobes, denticulate throughout entire length.

E. phellos Ross & DeLong

175'. Aedeagal shaft round in crossection or only slightly compressed, slender in lateral view, usually with small lateral lobes, denticulate in distal half only.

176

176(175). Pygofer appendage strongly sinuate in dorsal view. Forewing usually with red crossband.

E. era McAtee

176'. Pygofer appendage only slightly sinuate in dorsal view. Forewing with usual maculate color pattern.

E. bigemina McAtee

177(174). Margin between first and second points of style apex convex. Aedeagal shaft compressed, slightly curved dorsad. Pygofer appendage sinuate near apex.

E. mensa Beamer

177'. Margin between first and second points of style apex straight or concave. Aedeagal shaft round in crossection, straight in lateral view. Pygofer appendage straight or evenly curved in distal half.

178

178(177). Angle between basal and third points of style apex about 90. Preatrium not longer than aedeagal shaft. Forewing usually with crossband.

179

178'. Angle between basal and third points of style apex less than 90. Preatrium distinctly longer than aedeagal shaft. Forewing with usual maculate color pattern.

180

179(178). Pygofer appendage compressed. Dorsal apodeme of aedeagus with truncate posterior margin. Forewing usually with brownish basal half.

E. basilaris Say

179'. Pygofer appendage round in crossection. Dorsal apodeme of aedeagus with prominent posterior margin. Forewing usually with narrow red crossband.

E. micheneri Hepner

180(178). Pygofer appendage round in crossection. Second point of style apex distinctly enlarged.

E. lucyae Hepner

180'. Pygofer appendage compressed. Second point of style apex not enlarged.

E. guicei Hepner

181(165). Aedeagal shaft very broad in ventral view, about as wide as long.

E. lundi Hepner

181'. Aedeagal shaft slender, longer than wide.

182

182(181). Tip of aedeagal shaft abruptly bent dorsad at sharp angle.

E. marra Beamer

182'. Tip of aedeagal shaft not bent dorsad.

183

183(182). Preatrium only half as long as aedeagal shaft. Pygofer appendage straight in basal 2/3, apex abruptly curved inward at right angle.

E. staminea Knull

183'. Preatrium as long as or longer than aedeagal shaft. Pygofer appendage not as above.

184

184(183). Pygofer appendage strongly curved downward at almost right angle, compressed. Forewing usually with darkened basal half.

E. unca Knull

184'. Pygofer appendage usually straight or only slightly curved downward. Forewing with different color pattern.

185

185(184). Pygofer appendage strongly sinuate near apex; apex curved upward in lateral view.

E. dumosa Beamer

185'. Pygofer appendage straight or evenly curved downward in lateral view.

186

186(185). Margin between first and second points of style apex cconvex. Forewing with continuous zigzag pattern.

E. ligata McAtee

186'. Margin between first and second points of style apex straight or concave. Forewing with usual maculate color pattern or with crossbands.

187

187(186). Aedeagal shaft with large lateral lobes reaching shaft apex.

188

187'. Lateral lobes of aedeagal shaft, if present, small, not reaching shaft apex.

189

188(187). Pygofer appendage compressed, abruptly narrowing near middle in lateral view. Lateral lobes of aedeagal shaft angulate.

E. contracta Beamer

188'. Pygofer appendage not compressed, evenly tapered towards apex. Lateral lobes of aedeagal shaft rounded.

E. vittata Knull & Auten

189(187). Angle between basal and third points of style apex about 45.

E. biramosa Beamer

189'. Angle between basal and third points of style apex about 90.

190

190(189). Pygofer appendage slightly curved outward in dorsal view.

191

190'. Pygofer appendage straight or curved inward in dorsal view.

192

191(190). Pygofer appendage abruptly curved down near middle length. Aedeagal shaft compressed.

E. smithi Ross

191'. Pygofer appendage straight in lateral view. Aedeagal shaft round in crossection.

E. campora Robinson

192(190). Pygofer appendage in dorsal view strongly sinuate basally, straight in distal half. Aedeagal shaft compressed.

E. prolixa Knull

192'. Pygofer appendage in dorsal view evenly curved or curved in distal half. Aedeagal shaft not compressed.

193

193(192). Pygofer appendage strongly curved inward in dorsal view, forming semicircle. Aedeagus in lateral view with dorsal apodeme extended more than half distance to apex of shaft.

E. teres Beamer

193'. Pygofer appendage curved less strongly inward in dorsal view. Aedeagus in lateral view with dorsal apodeme extended less than half distance to apex of shaft.

194

194(193). Second point of style apex well developed. Forewing with 3 narrow crossbands.

E. amethica Ross

194'. Second point of style apex small toothlike. Forewing without crossbands.

195

195(194). Pygofer appendage arising in basal third of dorsal margin of pygofer lobe.

196

195'. Pygofer appendage arising at middle of dorsal margin of pygofer lobe.

198

196(195). Third point of style apex short and broad, only twice as long as basal width. Smaller (2.8-2.9 mm).

E. tenuitas Knull

196'. Third point of style apex longer, more than 3 times longer than basal width. Larger (3-3.3 mm).

197

197(196). Preatrium longer than aedeagal shaft; shaft narrower than preatrium. Pygofer appendage almost straight in dorsal view.

E. haysensis Hepner

197'. Preatrium about as long as aedeagal shaft; shaft about as wide as preatrium. Pygofer appendage distinctly sinuate.

E. geronimoi Knull

198(195). Dorsal apodeme of aedeagus not extended posterad along aedeagal shaft in lateral view (only compressed anterior extension of dorsal appeme extended). Third point of style apex more than half as long as distance between other two points.

E. macra Beamer

198'. Dorsal apodeme of aedeagus well extended posterad along aedeagal shaft in lateral view. Third point of style apex not more than half as long as distance between other two points.

199

199(198). Pygofer appendage slightly compressed basally, distinctly sinuate in dorsal view, denticulate apically. Color pattern usual for genus.

E. socia Knull

199'. Pygofer appendage not compressed, straight in dorsal view, not denticulate. Vertex, pro-, and mesonotum usually with broad red stripe. Clavus with red spot at apex.

E. accola McAtee